Friday, March 20, 2020

Armistice Day Quotes

Armistice Day Quotes Armistice Day or Remembrance Day is a day to honor the service of military personnel during the First World War. On November 11, 1918, the Allied Forces and Germany signed the armistice agreement for the cessation of war. After the Second World War, November 11 is celebrated as Armistice or Remembrance Day in the British Commonwealth of Nations and as Veterans Day in the US. In the US, Armistice Day was renamed to Veterans Day in 1954, at the end of the Korean War. It was instituted to honor all war veterans, living and martyred. On this day, military personnel and their families enjoy special treats, discounts, and perks from military and non-military establishments. Today, Armistice Day is a national holiday in Commonwealth Nations, and countries outside the Commonwealth such as France, Germany, and Belgium. Government s recognize the contribution of war veterans, who displayed courage and patriotism in the face of danger. Soldiers are honored with medals, certificates, and prizes. Grand parades, marching bands, and other military ceremonies mark the holiday, building the spirit of patriotism and brotherhood. General Omar N. Bradley Armistice Day is a constant reminder that we won a war and lost a peace. Blaise Pascal We must kill them in war, just because they live beyond the river. If they lived on this side, we would be called murderers. Chris Taylor, Platoon I think now, looking back, we did not fight the enemy; we fought ourselves. The enemy was in us. The war is over for me now, but it will always be there, the rest of my days. Kurt Vonnegut, Breakfast of Champions Armistice Day has become Veterans Day. Armistice Day was sacred. Veterans Day is not. So I will throw Veterans Day over my shoulder. Armistice Day I will keep. I dont want to throw away any sacred things. General William Tecumseh Sherman I confess without shame that I am tired and sick of war. Its glory is all moonshine. It is only those who have neither heard the shrieks and groans of the wounded, who cry aloud for more blood, more vengeance, more desolation. War is Hell. Francis Marion Crawford They fell, but oer their glorious grave Floats free the banner of the cause they died to save. Will Rogers We cant all be heroes because someone has to sit on the curb and clap as they go by. James A. Hetley She mourned with a bleak blank determination, marching straight ahead with a shell-shocked vets hollow-eyed thousand-yard stare while doing the next thing and the next. Joseph Campbell As we express our gratitude, we must never forget that the highest appreciation is not to utter words, but to live by them. Elmer Davis This nation will remain the land of the free only so long as it is the home of the brave. Thomas Dunn English But the freedom that they fought for, and the country grand they wrought for, Is their monument to-day, and for aye. Jimmy Carter War may sometimes be a necessary evil. But no matter how necessary, it is always an evil, never a good. We will not learn how to live together in peace by killing each other’s children. Gen. Jack D. Ripper, Dr. Strangelove War is too important to be left to politicians. They have neither the time, the training, nor the inclination for strategic thought. Carol Lynn Pearson Heroes take journeys, confront dragons, and discover the treasure of their true selves.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Critical Analysis

Critical Analysis Critical analysis is all about rational analysis and doesnt necessarily mean that you are supposed to criticize or express your negative attitude towards something. You need to analyze all the facts and provide your opinion towards the subject. Critical analysis, just like a critical essay,   doesn’t necessarily mean that you are supposed to criticize or express your negative attitude towards something (a piece of art, a theoretical framework, a book etc). Critical analysis is a part of critical thinking, which, according to the National Council in Critical thinking, can be defined as: â€Å"the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness†. CRITICAL LENS ANALYSIS Simply saying, whenever you are asked to critically analyze something, you are expected to take a look at the object of analysis, do some background research, point out the strengths and weaknesses of the described object and provide your logical reasoning to support your claims. In academic settings critical analysis can be used for a number of purposes, ranging from literary analysis to analyzing theoretical frameworks. How to Write a Critical Analysis? In our everyday practice, we get to work on many critical essays. The most common error students make in writing these kinds of papers is simply describing events rather than analyzing them. A good critical paper will rely on your own judgment while relying on external information to find evidence that supports the claims made. Let’s take a closer look at writing a critical analysis paper in the literature using the following critical essay example: â€Å"Discuss the concept of life-long learning†. Top 7 Steps to Critical Analysis Writing STEP 1.  Write a clear introduction that communicates the purpose of the paper and contains the thesis statement. When writing the introductory paragraph, make sure to mention the structure of the paper (in its typical form the essay will consist of an introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion) STEP 2. Make sure your discussion is informative and accurate and is based on relevant and recent scholarly resources. STEP 3. Using references to recent research and well-reputed scholars will add weight to your voice and you try to defend your claim. STEP 4. Always remember to maintain a logical connection between sections of your paper. Obviously, your conclusion should be a logical continuation of the previous paragraphs and should summarize the ideas expressed in them. STEP 5. Check back with your assignment criteria on whether such items as a cover page, title page, page numbering etc are required. STEP 6. Once are you done with your writing, go through the paper once again to proofread it and rid it of spelling and grammar errors. Additionally, an important thing to check is clarity of ideas (no stream of conscience please). STEP 7. Always double check your references. Referencing should be complete, accurate and follow the prescribed referencing standards. In case you are required to use APA style, there is an excellent APA referencing tool, called RefTool. is dealing with a wide range of critical essay topics. We can write critical analysis papers on a number of academic disciplines starting from Music, Poetry, and Literature to Philosophy, Architecture. In case you are in need of a critical analysis paper, feel free to contact our support department with your assignment criteria and they will provide you the necessary assistance  or place an order and we will gladly help you.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

How have African-Americans Worked to End Segregation, Discrimination, Essay

How have African-Americans Worked to End Segregation, Discrimination, and Isolation to Attain Equality and Civil Rights - Essay Example With some clever and much-needed moves, they have come out of the stigma that gauged people based on their skin color. This is no more a scenario in US. These people have broken the hard chains and have come out of the discrimination, segregation and isolation. Not only have they come out of the problems surrounding them but have also attained equality in all terms as well as civil rights (Turner-Sadler, 2009, p. 4-11). One of the most important things that played a major role in the fight against discrimination is the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This particular act served as a saving grace for the people as it prevented discrimination on grounds of race, color, national origin or religion among the people. This stand was practiced in both normal activities in the country as well as for employment purposes. Afro-Americans successfully found their way to the top in all sphere of life, be it politically, socially as well as economically. After the Second World War, the Afr ican-Americans moved to some of the commercial cities in the northern and western parts. Usually, the black population is found to be more in the Southern regions. In course of time, the people started moving to other areas where opportunities are more and were a good platform for education was found. This segregation happened in a smooth manner and was made possible by the Civil Rights Act (Wynn, 2010, 30-55). There are lots of aspects that led to the upbringing of the Afro-Americans and one of the most important of all is their political influence. They came to know the importance of attaining political status and worked towards it. In few years, there were lots of African-American leaders in US. Intensity of support is more now and US now boasts of an African-American President at its realm. The first step towards the infusion of African-Americans into the political scenario took place in a slow yet steady manner that paved way for greater stability. Colburn and Adler (2001, pp. 45-75) points out that the political influence that the African-American population gained paved way for development. Richard Hatcher, an African American became the mayor in 1967 which was the beginning of the better phase for the group. With this move, came about a sea of positive changes in the US. Thus through a strong political footage, the African-Americans gained civil rights. Followed by the political affluences came the social status and other perks associated with it. Earlier, discrimination was found in all spheres of life right from jobs, positions and education as well. One of the most dreaded forms of discrimination that is found even now in some parts of the US is that of the employment discrimination. Some sort of discrimination will lead to a lot of adverse situations in the country. If there is no proper employment opportunity for the group then there will not be any sort of developments which may keep that particular society in darkness. In due course of time, thi s may even affect the country at large. There seems to be a significant development in terms of economy as well among the black population. The African-Americans have come to realize the importance of education, political and social status. Conrad (2005, p. 341) rightly points out that there has been a great development in the economical aspect with relation to the African population in America. One of the most important aspects that led

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Varieties of Corporate Governance PowerPoint Presentation

Varieties of Corporate Governance - PowerPoint Presentation Example Corporate governance is not only a strategic approach and a driving force for an economy, but it also emphasizes on the variations in its system. The variations differ according to the business situation, such as failed incorporate networks may emphasize on the implementation of financial orientation type corporate governance system (Lazonick & O'Sullivan, 2000). Within the applied system of corporate governance, organizational arrangements and social relations act as those factors that determine the controlling authorities for an organization. The culture within an organization is thoroughly important, when directors and controlling authorities to run corporate governance are to be decided. It is up to the priorities of an organization; whether it is more towards revenue generation or towards the development of an ideal presence in the market, such as HTC Corporation. Therefore, this is the organizational arrangement that helps in picking the controlling authorities for a firm (Lazo nick & O'Sullivan, 2000). ... The firms may take advantage of the institutional approach, where system of corporate governance can be accomplished according to the outcomes (Dore, 2000, pp. 115-127). Supporting Arguments As the core argument of the article talks about the diversifications and variations of the corporate governance; therefore, in order support this main argument few of the supporting arguments are developed to achieve the aim appropriately. It is revealed that the relationship developed among the key stakeholders of an organization, including labour, capital and management, differs region to region (Aguillera & Jackson, 2003). Article also measures the isolated effects of all the stakeholders; thus, ‘forward-looking’ approach is used to analyze the effects. In the considered article, role of institutional complementarities in developing a suitable corporate governance system at a firm level is also analyzed. It can be observed that practicability of a certain institution rises, when o ther business institution does not suit particular business circumstances. In few cases, it is found that organizations are not likely to work on strategic orientation, when it comes to deal with financial system (Dore, 2000, pp. 118-124). By describing the dimensions and variations in such system, the role of directors and executive is also truly significant in determining the sustainable and reliable dimensions for any firm. One of the existing obstacles in the implementation of corporate governance is the conflicts, which may arise when interests of labour are suppressed by the interests of management and capital of the firm. The theoretical model presented in the article has served the main purpose properly.

Saturday, January 25, 2020

The Eight Principles Of Quality Management Principles Management Essay

The Eight Principles Of Quality Management Principles Management Essay This document introduces the eight quality management principles on which the quality management system standards of the ISO 9000:2000 and ISO 9000:2008 series are based. These principles can be used by senior management as a framework to guide their organizations towards improved performance. The principles are derived from the collective experience and knowledge of the international experts who participate in ISO Technical Committee ISO/TC 176, Quality management and quality assurance, which is responsible for developing and maintaining the ISO 9000 standards. The eight quality management principles are defined in ISO 9000:2005, Quality management systems Fundamentals and vocabulary, and in ISO 9004:2000, Quality management systems Guidelines for performance improvements. This document gives the standardized descriptions of the principles as they appear in ISO 9000:2005 and ISO 9004:2000. In addition, it provides examples of the benefits derived from their use and of actions that managers typically take in applying the principles to improve their organizations performance. Principle 1: Customer focus Principle 2: Leadership Principle 3: Involvement of people Principle 4: Process approach Principle 5: System approach to management Principle 6: Continual improvement Principle 7: Factual approach to decision making Principle 8: Mutually beneficial supplier relationships The next step Principle 1: Customer focus Organizations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future customer needs, should meet customer requirements and strive to exceed customer expectations. Key benefits: Increased revenue and market share obtained through flexible and fast responses to market opportunities. Increased effectiveness in the use of the organizations resources to enhance customer satisfaction. Improved customer loyalty leading to repeat business. Applying the principle of customer focus typically leads to: Researching and understanding customer needs and expectations. Ensuring that the objectives of the organization are linked to customer needs and expectations. Communicating customer needs and expectations throughout the organization. Measuring customer satisfaction and acting on the results. Systematically managing customer relationships. Ensuring a balanced approach between satisfying customers and other interested parties (such as owners, employees, suppliers, financiers, local communities and society as a whole). Principle 2: Leadership Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of the organization. They should create and maintain the internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organizations objectives. Key benefits: People will understand and be motivated towards the organizations goals and objectives. Activities are evaluated, aligned and implemented in a unified way. Miscommunication between levels of an organization will be minimized. Applying the principle of leadership typically leads to: Considering the needs of all interested parties including customers, owners, employees, suppliers, financiers, local communities and society as a whole. Establishing a clear vision of the organizations future. Setting challenging goals and targets. Creating and sustaining shared values, fairness and ethical role models at all levels of the organization. Establishing trust and eliminating fear. Providing people with the required resources, training and freedom to act with responsibility and accountability. Inspiring, encouraging and recognizing peoples contributions. Principle 3: Involvement of people People at all levels are the essence of an organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for the organizations benefit. Key benefits: Motivated, committed and involved people within the organization. Innovation and creativity in furthering the organizations objectives. People being accountable for their own performance. People eager to participate in and contribute to continual improvement. Applying the principle of involvement of people typically leads to: People understanding the importance of their contribution and role in the organization. People identifying constraints to their performance. People accepting ownership of problems and their responsibility for solving them. People evaluating their performance against their personal goals and objectives. People actively seeking opportunities to enhance their competence, knowledge and experience. People freely sharing knowledge and experience. People openly discussing problems and issues. - Principle 4: Process approach A desired result is achieved more efficiently when activities and related resources are managed as a process. Key benefits: Lower costs and shorter cycle times through effective use of resources. Improved, consistent and predictable results. Focused and prioritized improvement opportunities. Applying the principle of process approach typically leads to: Systematically defining the activities necessary to obtain a desired result. Establishing clear responsibility and accountability for managing key activities. Analysing and measuring of the capability of key activities. Identifying the interfaces of key activities within and between the functions of the organization. Focusing on the factors such as resources, methods, and materials that will improve key activities of the organization. Evaluating risks, consequences and impacts of activities on customers, suppliers and other interested parties. Principle 5: System approach to management Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organizations effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives. Key benefits: Integration and alignment of the processes that will best achieve the desired results. Ability to focus effort on the key processes. Providing confidence to interested parties as to the consistency, effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. Applying the principle of system approach to management typically leads to: Structuring a system to achieve the organizations objectives in the most effective and efficient way. Understanding the interdependencies between the processes of the system. Structured approaches that harmonize and integrate processes. Providing a better understanding of the roles and responsibilities necessary for achieving common objectives and thereby reducing cross-functional barriers. Understanding organizational capabilities and establishing resource constraints prior to action. Targeting and defining how specific activities within a system should operate. Continually improving the system through measurement and evaluation. Principle 6: Continual improvement Continual improvement of the organizations overall performance should be a permanent objective of the organization. Key benefits: Performance advantage through improved organizational capabilities. Alignment of improvement activities at all levels to an organizations strategic intent. Flexibility to react quickly to opportunities. Applying the principle of continual improvement typically leads to: Employing a consistent organization-wide approach to continual improvement of the organizations performance. Providing people with training in the methods and tools of continual improvement. Making continual improvement of products, processes and systems an objective for every individual in the organization. Establishing goals to guide, and measures to track, continual improvement. Recognizing and acknowledging improvements - Principle 7: Factual approach to decision making Effective decisions are based on the analysis of data and information Key benefits: Informed decisions. An increased ability to demonstrate the effectiveness of past decisions through reference to factual records. Increased ability to review, challenge and change opinions and decisions. Applying the principle of factual approach to decision making typically leads to: Ensuring that data and information are sufficiently accurate and reliable. Making data accessible to those who need it. Analysing data and information using valid methods. Making decisions and taking action based on factual analysis, balanced with experience and intuition. Principle 8: Mutually beneficial supplier relationships An organization and its suppliers are interdependent and a mutually beneficial relationship enhances the ability of both to create value Key benefits: Increased ability to create value for both parties. Flexibility and speed of joint responses to changing market or customer needs and expectations. Optimization of costs and resources. Applying the principles of mutually beneficial supplier relationships typically leads to: Establishing relationships that balance short-term gains with long-term considerations. Pooling of expertise and resources with partners. Identifying and selecting key suppliers. Clear and open communication. Sharing information and future plans. Establishing joint development and improvement activities. Inspiring, encouraging and recognizing improvements and achievements by suppliers. - ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ISO 9000 is maintained by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization and is administered by accreditation and certification bodies. The rules are updated, as the requirements motivate changes over time. Some of the requirements in ISO 9001:2008 (which is one of the standards in the ISO 9000 family) include a set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business; monitoring processes to ensure they are effective; keeping adequate records; checking output for defects, with appropriate and corrective action where necessary; regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness; and facilitating continual improvement A company or organization that has been independently audited and certified to be in conformance with ISO 9001 may publicly state that it is ISO 9001 certified or ISO 9001 registered. Certification to an ISO 9001 standard does not guarantee any quality of end products and services; rather, it certifies that formalized business processes are being applied. Although the standards originated in manufacturing, they are now employed across several types of organizations. A product, in ISO vocabulary, can mean a physical object, services, or software. Contents [hide] 1 Contents of ISO 9001 1.1 Summary of ISO 9001:2008 1.2 1.0 Scope 1.3 2.0 Normative reference 1.4 3.0 Terms and definitions 1.5 4.0 Quality management system 1.6 5.0 Management responsibility 1.6.1 5.1 Management commitment 1.7 6.0 Resource management 1.8 7.0 Product realization 1.9 8.0 Measurement, analysis and improvement 1.9.1 8.5 Improvement 1.9.1.1 8.5.1 Continual improvement 1.10 1987 version 1.11 1994 version 1.12 2000 version 1.13 Certification 2 Auditing 3 Industry-specific interpretations 4 Effectiveness 4.1 Advantages 4.2 Problems 4.3 Summary 5 See also

Friday, January 17, 2020

Annotated Bibliography: How Is Tv Bad or Good? Essay

How is TV bad/good? Do you learn from watching TV? What shows are best to watch? These are just some of the questions that this annotated bibliography will answer for you and help you decide whether TV is good or bad. This bibliography can be used by anyone who wants to decide if watching TV is good or bad, either for their children, or themselves. Johnson, Steven. â€Å"Watching TV Makes You Smarter.† They Say / I Say With Readings. Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 277-294. Print. The argument in Johnsons article is that media has had to get more cognitively challenging to keep pulling the attention of viewers. He explains how he believes watching television can help make you a smarter person because it makes you use inferences, track relationships, and makes the reader think by tracking multiple threads. He uses examples from several television shows and series that may be affecting our brain activity. He makes many good persuasive points in his argument that TV isn’t necessarily a bad thing, but too much of anything is never a good thing. Peacocke, Antonia. â€Å"Family Guy and Freud: Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious.† They Say / I Say With Readings. Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 299-311. Print. Antonia Peacocke describes the difficulty that the television show â€Å"Family Guy† has went through, having been cancelled twice. She describes how the jokes in â€Å"Family Guy† have a more insightful meaning. Peacocke talks about her own struggle with the shows seemingly offensive humor but then how she realizes the underlying â€Å"satire† of the jokes. She sees some of the steps taken due to the fact that the content of some of the jokes are not for younger audiences. She ends her article explaining that she feels that there is more to the jokes on Family Guy than the offensive rudeness that people like to point out, but she still finds that people still need to realize that some jokes do go too far. Stevens, Dana. â€Å"Thinking Outside The Idiot Box.† They Say / I Say With Readings. Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 295-298. Print. Stevens explains in this article that turning off the TV until Sunday will not make you any dumber. She talks about how children are â€Å"fresh meat† for marketing industries and shows like â€Å"Teletubbies†, encourage and teach children the basics of â€Å"vegging† out. She is pointing out that shows on TV do not necessarily always do a person good but quite the opposite. She also demonstrates her frustration that many people think that TV is fine especially when it pertains to a nature show. She describes a recent visit to the airport and there w ere a number of people watching a TV that portrayed animals. It made her realize that watching animal shows are fine, but wonders why people think this when in all reality it could be a violent animal show. She is insisting that there are many people who are offended by many things and each person needs to be sensitive to what they play on their TVs. Zinser, Jason. â€Å"The Good The Bad The Daily Show.† They Say / I Say With Readings. Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 363-379. Print. Zinser sees â€Å"The Daily Show† as a combined form of entertainment that is both beneficial and damaging to society. Beneficial, in that, the show sparks viewer interest in current events, particularly for younger viewers who might not watch so-called real news. Damaging, in that, the show relies on â€Å"deception and dilution† for its platform.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Media internet - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 17 Words: 5109 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Internet Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? How Teenagers Consume Media Digital media is profoundly transforming consumer behaviour and traditional media business models. While creating new opportunities, its disruptive influence is being accelerated by the global recession. At the vanguard of this digital revolution are teenagers. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Media internet" essay for you Create order While their habits will obviously change (especially when they start employment), understanding their mindset seems an excellent way of assessing how the media landscape will evolve. To this end, we asked a 15 year old summer work intern, Matthew Robson, to describe how he and his friends consume media. Without claiming representation or statistical accuracy, his piece provides one of the clearest and most thought provoking insights we have seen. So we published it. There are several issues that immediately jump out from the piece. Teenagers are consuming more media, but in entirely different ways and are almost certainly not prepared to pay for it. They resent intrusive advertising on billboards, TV and the Internet. They are happy to chase content and music across platforms and devices (iPods, mobiles, streaming sites). Print media (newspapers, directories) are viewed as irrelevant but events (cinema, concerts etc.) remain popular and one of the few beneficiaries of payment. The convergence of gaming, TV, mobile and Internet is accelerating with huge implications for pay-TV. For mobiles, price is key both in terms of handset prices ÂÂ £100-200 as well as taking pay as you go as opposed to contracts. Mid-range feature phones still dominate, meaning that Sony Ericsson does well as thats their sweet spot. High-end smartphones are desirable but too expensive. Most prefer to own separate devices for music, and messaging. Texting is still key and use of new data services limited due to cost. Wi-Fi is more popular than 3G. While these trends will not necessarily surprise, their influence on TMT stocks cannot be underestimated. How Teenagers ConsumeMedia Radio Most teenagers nowadays are not regular listeners to radio. They may occasionally tune in, but they do not try to listen to a program specifically. The main reason teenagers listen to the radio is for music, but now with online sites streaming music for free they do not bother, as services such as last.fm do this advert free, and users can choose the songs they want instead of listening to what the radio presenter/DJ chooses. Television Most teenagers watch television, but usually there are points in the year where they watch more than average. This is due to programs coming on in seasons, so they will watch a particular show at a certain time for a number of weeks (as long as it lasts) but then they may watch no television for weeks after the program has ended. allows them to watch shows when they want. Whilst watching TV, adverts come on quite regularly (18 minutes of every hour) and teenagers do not want to watch these, so they switch to another channel, or do something else whilst the adverts run. The majority of teenagers I speak to have Virgin Media as their provider, citing lower costs but similar content of Sky. A fraction of teenagers have Freeview but these people are light users of TV (they watch about 1 ÂÂ ½ hours per week) so they do not require the hundreds of channels that other providers offer. Newspapers No teenager that I know of regularly reads a newspaper, as most do not have the time and cannot be bothered to read pages and pages of text while they could watch the news summarised on the internet or on TV. The only newspapers that are read are tabloids and freesheets (Metro, London Lite) mainly because of cost; teenagers are very reluctant to pay for a newspaper (hence the popularity of freesheets such as the Metro). Over the last few weeks, the sun has decreased in cost to 20p, so I have seen more and more copies read by teenagers. Another reason why mainly tabloids are read is that their compact size allows them to be read easily, on a bus or train. This is especially true for The Metro, as it is distributed on buses and trains. Gaming users, which has had an impact on phone usage; one can speak for free over the console and so a teenager would be unwilling to pay to use a phone. PC gaming has little or no place in the teenage market. This may be because usually games are released across all platforms, and whilst one can be sure a game will play on a console PC games require expensive set ups to ensure a game will play smoothly. In addition, PC games are relatively easy to pirate and download for free, so many teenagers would do this rather than buy a game. In contrast, it is near impossible to obtain a console game for free. Internet Every teenager has some access to the internet, be it at school or home. Home use is mainly used for fun (such as social networking) whilst school (or library) use is for work. Most teenagers are heavily active on a combination of social networking sites. Facebook is the most common, with nearly everyone with an internet connection registered and visiting 4 times a week. Facebook is popular as one can interact with friends on a wide scale. On the other hand, teenagers do not use twitter. Most have signed up to the service, but then just leave it as they release that they are not going to update it (mostly because texting twitter uses up credit, and they would rather text friends with that credit). In addition, they realise that no one is viewing their profile, so their tweets are pointless. Outside of social networking, the internet is used primarily as a source of information for a variety of topics. For searching the web, Google is the dominant figure, simply because it is well k nown and easy to use. Some teenagers make purchases on the internet (on sites like eBay) but this is only used by a small will) so that they can transfer it to portable music players and share it with friends. How teenagers play their music while on the go varies, and usually dependent on wealth -with teenagers from higher income families using iPods and those from lower income families using mobile phones. Some teenagers use both to listen to music, and there are always exceptions to the rule. A number of people use the music service iTunes (usually in conjunction with iPods) to acquire their music (legally) but again this is unpopular with many teenagers because of the high price (79p per song). Some teenagers use a combination of sources to obtain music, because sometimes the sound quality is better on streaming sites but they cannot use these sites whilst offline, so they would download a song then listen to it on music streaming sites (separate from the file). Cinema Teenagers visit the cinema quite often, regardless of what is on. Usually they will target a film first, and set out to see that, but sometimes they will just go and choose when they get there. This is because going to the cinema is not usually about the film, but the experience -and getting together with friends. Teenagers visit the cinema more often when they are in the lower end of teendom (13 and 14) but as they approach 15 they go to the cinema a lot less. This is due to the pricing; at 15 they have to pay the adult price, which is often double the child price. Also, it is possible to buy a pirated DVD of the film at the time of release, and these cost much less than a cinema ticket so teenagers often choose this instead of going to the cinema. Some teenagers choose to download the films off the internet, but this is not favourable as the films are usually bad quality, have to be watched on a small computer screen and there is a chance that they will be malicious files and ins tall a virus. Devices Mobile Phones 99% of teenagers have a mobile phone and most are quite capable phones. The general view is that Sony Ericsson phones are superior, due to their long list of features, built in walkman capability and value (ÂÂ £100 will buy a mid-high range model). Teenagers due to the risk of it getting lost do not own mobile phones over the ÂÂ £200 mark. As a rule, teenagers have phones on pay as you go. This is because they cannot afford the monthly payments, and cannot commit to an 18-month contract. Usually, teenagers only use their phone for texting, calling. Features such as video messaging or video calling are not used -because they are expensive, (you can get four regular texts for the price of one video message). Services such as instant messaging are used, but not by everyone. It usually depends whether the phone is Wi-Fi compatible, because otherwise it is very expensive to get internet off the phone network. As most teenagers phones have Bluetooth support, and Bluetooth is free, they utilise this feature often. It is used to send songs and videos (even though it is illegal) and is another way teenagers gain songs for free. Teenagers never use the ringtone and picture selling services, which gained popularity in the early 00s. This is because of the negative press that these services have attracted (where the charge ÂÂ £20 a week with no easy way to cancel the service) and the fact that they can get pictures and music on a computer -then transfer it to their phones at no cost. Mobile email is not used as teenagers have no need; they do not need to be connected to their inbox all the time as they dont receive important emails. Teenagers do not use the internet features on their mobiles as it costs too much, and generally, if they waited an hour they could use their home internet and they are willing to wait as they dont usually have anything urgent to do. Teenagers do not upgrade their phone very often, with most upgrading every two years. They usually upgrade on their birthday when their parents will buy them a new phone, as they do not normally have enough money to do it themselves. Televisions: Most teenagers own a TV, with more and more upgrading to HD ready flat screens. However, many are not utilising this HD functionality, as HD channels are expensive extras which many families cannot justify the added expenditure. Many of them dont want to sign up to HD broadcasting services, as adverts are shown on standard definition broadcasts, so they cant see the difference. Most people have Virgin Media as a TV provider. Some have sky and some have Freeview but very few only have the first five channels (BBC One, BBC Two, ITV, Channel Four and Channel Five). Computers: Every teenager has access to a basic computer with internet, but most teenagers computers are systems capable of only everyday tasks. Nearly all teenagers computers have Microsoft office installed, as it allows them to do school work at home. Most (9/10) computers owned by teenagers are PCs, because they are much cheaper than Macs and school computers run Windows, so if a Mac is used at home compatibility issues arise. Games Consoles: Close to 1/3 of teenagers have a new ( 2 ÂÂ ½ years old) games console, 50% having a Wii, 40% with an Xbox 360 and 10% with a PS3. The PS3 has such a low figure because of its high price (ÂÂ £300) and similar features and games to an Xbox 360, which costs less (ÂÂ £160). The Wiis dominance is due to younger brothers and sisters, they have a Wii and parents are not willing to pay for another console.) What is Hot? Anything with a touch screen is desirable. Mobile phones with large capacities for music. Portable devices that can connect to the internet (iPhones) Really big tellies What Is Not? Anything with wires Phones with black and white screens Clunky brick phones Devices with less than ten-hour battery life Disclosure Section Morgan Stanley Co. International plc, authorized and regulated by Financial Services Authority, disseminates in the UK research that it has prepared, and approves solely for the purposes of section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, research which has been prepared by any of its affiliates. As used in this disclosure section, Morgan Stanley includes RMB Morgan Stanley (Proprietary) Limited, Morgan Stanley Co International plc and its affiliates. For important disclosures, stock price charts and rating histories regarding companies that are the subject of this report, please see the Morgan Stanley Research Disclosure Website at www.morganstanley.com/researchdisclosures, or contact your investment representative or Morgan Stanley Research at 1585 Broadway, (Attention: Equity Research Management), New York, NY, 10036 USA. 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Important US Regulatory Disclosures on Subject Companies As of June 30, 2009, Morgan Stanley beneficially owned 1% or more of a class of common equity securities of the following companies covered in Morgan Stanley Research: BSkyB, Informa, Lagardere, Reed Elsevier NV, Reed Elsevier PLC, SeLoger.com, SES, TF1, Vivendi, Wolters Kluwer, Yell. As of June 30, 2009, Morgan Stanley held a net long or short position of US$1 million or more of the debt securities of the following issuers covered in Morgan Stanley Research (including where guarantor of the securities): BSkyB, DMGT, Eutelsat Communications, Havas, ITV, Lagardere, Pearson, Publicis Groupe, Reed Elsevier PLC, SES, TF1, Thomson Reuters Corp., Thomson Reuters PLC, United Business Media, Vivendi, Wolters Kluwer, WPP Group Plc, Yell. Within the last 12 months, Morgan Stanley managed or co-managed a public offering of securities of Thomson Reuters Corp.. 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